Image: Sharing music. Roman style by Ed Yourdon, generously made available under an Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.0 Generic (CC BY NC-SA 2.0) licence. Source: Flickr.

This post is the sixth in a series called Sharing FM.

When planning this series of posts, I envisaged it culminating in a showcase of good practice regarding use of Creative Commons (CC) licences for FM content.

That it hasn’t quite worked out way is because, when I got round to doing the necessary desk research, the findings were rather meagre.

As a result, I showcase here a couple of FM-specific examples but have also cast my net more widely to include other types of content.


FM content

One site that regularly uses, and makes explicit reference to, CC is Passion4FM (

To see examples, type ‘Creative Commons’ into the site’s search function.

CC purists might argue that there is a lack of perfectionism in their CC attributions. Take, for example, the post entitled ‘Club Football Philosophy, Culture & DNA’, by Den Outlander:

The credit at the foot of the post attributes the creator and specifies the CC licence applied. It doesn’t, however, tell us the title of the image or the source: but perhaps the image has never had a title? And, though it’s not quite clear, I infer that this is the first outing for the image.

In another post – A Football Manager Youth Development Challenge Focusing on Developing New Promising Talent by Espen – the photo credit includes attribution, licence, and source. Again, there no title: again, I don’t know whether a title ever existed.

Passion4Fm shows more awareness of intellectual property than do many FM sites. On the ‘Content Creators wanted’ page ( the site emphasises in its list of principles that copyright must not be infringed. It also provides a link to a resource called ‘Copyright basics’ (

Unfortunately, this resource doesn’t consider CC. Passion4FM’s own principles tells contributors that content ‘must be unique and written/made by you’. This rather overlooks the opportunity to explain how CC-licensed material could be incorporated.

Overall, I’d say that with regard to CC practice, Passion4FM could perhaps be described as half in, half out.

A second FM site of interest is Score More FM ( Here I should declare an interest, which is that I’ve contributed a review article to the site. So far as I can see, Score More FM doesn’t mention CC. The reason I mention it here is that the site is certainly aware of copyright issues and is keen to credit work from elsewhere.

This is evident in the article I wrote, ‘ScoreMore’s POM (5), I provided the text; the website host sourced the images.

The caption for the images provides a hyperlink to the source ( If you follow these links, you’ll see that one of the images is listed as ‘free to use’ and another does indeed specify a CC licence.


Related content

The Conversation provides an example of a blog that is committed to CC. See, for example, the post by Simon Chadwick, entitled ‘Heads will roll: why it’s so easy to sack a football manager’ (

If you click on the ‘republish this article’ button, it will take you to the CC licence for this piece. I am unclear, however, about the status of the header photographs (of Messrs Jol and Pardew). Is the image licensed? There seems to be a lack of information here.

Finally, academic articles that are published under open access (that is, free to the reader) often make use of CC licences. Take, for example, an article by Carlos Lago-Penas, published in the Journal of Human Kinetics (June, 2011) and entitled ‘Coach Mid-Season Replacement and Team Performance in Professional Soccer’.

If you click on the hyperlink to ‘copyright and license information’, you’ll see that the article is published under a CC licence. All the necessary information (title; attribution; source; licence) is provided at or near the head of the article.

Similarly, ‘Strategies for coaches’ development in a football club’ (Motriz, 2019) ( by Alexandre Vicinius Bobato Tozetto and others, is published under a CC licence, though the information is provided near the base of the document. Anyone intending to share this work has some work to do to collate the necessary meta-data (title, attribution, source, licence).



To finish on a creative note: the extra investigation required to complete this post has perhaps proved a good thing in that it has alerted me to types of CC-licenced material about football management ITRW that could perhaps be incorporated into FM content.


Published under an Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0) licence.

Title:   Good practice in FM content creation

Attribution:   Du Malone

Source:        Black Sea FM (

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